Supplementary Materials1

Supplementary Materials1. to the adaptive immune system, yet a comprehensive transcriptional platform taking thymus organogenesis at solitary cell resolution is still needed. We applied single-cell RNA-seq to capture eight days of thymus development, perturbations of T-cell receptor rearrangement, and organ cultures, generating profiles of 24,279 cells. We resolved transcriptional heterogeneity of developing lymphocytes, and genetic perturbation confirmed T cell identity of standard and non-conventional lymphocytes. We characterized maturation dynamics of thymic epithelial cells in vivo, classified cell maturation state inside a thymic organ tradition, and exposed the intrinsic capacity of thymic epithelium to preserve transcriptional regularity despite exposure to exogenous retinoic acid. Finally, by integrating the cell atlas with human being GWAS data and autoimmune disease-related genes, we implicated embryonic thymus resident cells as you can participants in autoimmune disease etiologies. This source provides a single-cell transcriptional platform for biological finding and molecular analysis of thymus organogenesis. Graphical Abstract Intro The thymus, a primary lymphoid organ, is critical for creating a self-tolerant and practical adaptive immune system (Gruver LHW090-A7 and Sempowski, 2008; Kyewski and Derbinski, 2004; Markert et al., 2009). Close connection of developing thymocytes with thymus resident epithelial and blood cells provide the appropriate environment for lineage induction and thymocyte selection (Hogquist et al., 2005). In turn, developing thymocytes provide crucial signals for developing epithelial cells (Marrella et al., 2014). Currently, the molecular platform and transcriptional dynamics underlying thymus development remain poorly recognized. Single-cell RNA (scRNA)-seq allows for transcriptome-wide characterization of complex cell populations and has been applied to organs such as intestine (Grun et al., 2015; Haber et al., 2017), mind (Zeisel et al., 2015), spleen (Jaitin et al., 2014), and pancreas (Baron et al., 2016; Muraro et al., 2016). In addition, scRNA-seq approaches possess profiled developmental processes in early mesoderm (Scialdone et al., 2016), epidermis and hair follicle (Joost et al., 2016), and heart cells (DeLaughter et al., LHW090-A7 2016). Despite the utility of this technology in profiling heterogeneous cells and developmental dynamics, it has only been applied to circulation cytometry-sorted populations in the adult thymus (Brennecke et al., 2015; LHW090-A7 Meredith et al., 2015; Miragaia et al., 2018), therefore limiting resolution of the cellular heterogeneity present during thymus development. Here, we have applied Drop-seq, a high-throughput, droplet-based scRNA-seq technology (Macosko et al., 2015), to profile thymi over eight LHW090-A7 days spanning from early thymus organogenesis until birth. Since thymus development depends on relationships of various thymus-resident cells, we captured cells from the whole organ in each sample. In addition, we applied genetic and small-molecule perturbations, leveraging the cell atlas like a blueprint for detecting their cellular and molecular effects. In total, we profiled 24,279 cells. We defined cellular heterogeneity and transcriptomic dynamics during thymus organogenesis, taking conventional thymocyte development. We also recognized a variety of non-conventional lymphoid cells (NCLs), some of which have not been appreciated within the solitary cell and molecular level before. To confirm scRNA-seq centered predictions about which NCLs are T Foxd1 cells, we identified which NCL populations were affected by T cell receptor (TCR) rearrangement. We also characterized thymic epithelial cell (TEC) diversity, determining subtypes and subset-specific surface molecules. Lastly, we shown the utility of the atlas, LHW090-A7 characterizing an in vitro thymic organ tradition assay and determining effects of exogenous retinoic acid treatment on in vitro thymus organogenesis. The thymic cell atlas provides a molecular blueprint of thymus organogenesis at solitary cell resolution, exposing transcriptional dynamics and creating persistence of cellular heterogeneity despite ex vivo tradition and perturbation. Results Machine learning and single-cell RNA sequencing deal with major thymic cell types, including blood cells, mesenchyme, endothelium, and thymic epithelium In order to capture early stages of thymus development, we sampled thymic lobes beginning at E12.5, when the thymic primordium has detached from your pharynx and surface ectoderm (Gordon and Manley, 2011). We sampled each day.