[PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] 13. Ministry of Heath of China. strong class=”kwd-title” Keywords: Femoral Head, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Patient, Aseptic Necrosis Overview of SARS Definition of SARS Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory tract infectious disease induced by SARS-CoV and mainly transmitted through the short-distance air droplets and close contact. Its main clinical characteristics is abrupt onset of the disease and the initial symptom is fever accompanied with systematic symptoms of headache, soreness and fatigue, and 6-Thioguanine respiratory tract symptoms such as cough, chest dullness, and dyspnea. A few cases may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Due to its self-limiting feature, the prognosis is predominantly good but may be poor in severe cases, with mortality about 9.3 %. Some patients may develop such complications such as lung fibrosis and necrosis of the head of femur. On April 8, 2003, SARS was defined as a legal infectious disease by the Ministry of Heath of China. Discovery and Epidemic of SARS The Discovery of the Disease The first SARS case was reported around the world on January 2, 2003; a hospital in Heyuan city of Guangdong province hospitalized two patients with severe pulmonary infection of unknown cause, which was the first traceable report of SARS around the global. On February 28, 2003, SARS was first diagnosed by the WHO expert Carlor Urbani in Hanoi of Vietnam, who also named this new unexplained disease em S /em evere 6-Thioguanine em A /em cute em R /em espiratory em S /em yndrome (SARS). Control of SARS Epidemics Following the emergence of SARS, WHO and governments around the world attached great importance and took consecutively effective control and prevention measures, which reined in the infection rapidly controlled in a short time. On April 28, 2003, WHO eliminated Vietnam from the name list of the SARS-infected area, which made Vietnam the first to get rid of SARS outbreaks. Since then, numerous countries were also ticked off the list. On July 5, 2003, WHO announced to remove Taiwan of China from SARS-affected area list, which is also the last. At present, there is no SARS-affected area around the world, signaling the victory of global battle against SARS. By the end of September 26, 2003, there were in total 8,098 people infected and 774 deceased, with the mortality at 9.5 %. Etiology On April 16, 2003, a new coronavirus never seen was announced as the cause of SARS by WHO. It is the joint efforts of global 6-Thioguanine scientists and biological scientific and technological advances that enabled establishment of international SARS research network, separation and identification of SARS coronavirus, and confirmation of SARS pathogenesis. Discovery of SARS Pathogen and Determination of Pathogenesis Screening and Exclusion of Known Pathogens Some Canadian laboratories excluded influenza virus A and B; para-influenza virus type 1, 2, and 3; adenovirus; and respiratory syncytial virus by scanning electron microscopy and direct fluorescent antibody test. They also conducted immunohistochemistry on the corpse tissues of dead patients about viruses including influenza virus A and B, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, circovirus, Hantaan virus, measles virus, intestinal tract virus, and pneumonia mycoplasma and chlamydia, which showed negative. Scholars from German, France, America, Hong Kong, and Taiwan applied specific PCR tests targeted at corresponding pathogens to examine pneumonia mycoplasma, pneumonia chlamydia, human cytomegalovirus, circovirus, herpes virus, human coronavirus OC43 and 229E and Arenaviruses, Bunyavirus, Hantaan virus, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, which also indicated negative. Separation and Identification of SARS Coronavirus On March 21, 2003, Hong Kong University firstly separated and cultured coronavirus from the nasopharyngeal specimen of SARS patients by Vero cells, and then several laboratories of Canada and America disease center and SARS international Rabbit Polyclonal to EIF3K coordination group also cultured coronavirus. On April 16, 2003, based on the aforementioned research findings, WHO declared a new coronavirus as the pathogen of SARS and named it as SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Physicochemical Characteristics of SARS Coronavirus Morphologic Structure SARS-CoV is a single-stranded and positive RNA virus belonging to the genus Coronavirus of Coronaviridae family of Nidovirales order. It bears great morphological resemblance with known human coronaviruses. Under the electric microscopes, SARS coronavirus presents with pleomorphic spherical particles with envelopes in Vero E6 cell in vitro and with a diameter of about 80C140 mm. It has distinct coronavirus morphological characteristics that rodlike surface projections.